CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2023

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2023: CBSE has published the syllabus of class 12th for the academic year 2023. CBSE Class 12th Physics syllabus comprises a total of 9 units and 14 chapters. The theoretical part will contain 70 marks and the evaluation scheme will be 30 marks. The students must pay close attention to the physics class 12th syllabus and learn the basic concepts of physics from the NCERT textbooks. It will help them in further studies and competitive examinations such as JEE Main, JEE Advanced, BITSAT, and NEET, etc. 

Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2023

In the second term of class 12th, the physics syllabus board has given 9 units, which has been indexed in the below table-

Unit–I: ElectrostaticsChapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields16
Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Unit-II: Current ElectricityChapter–3: Current Electricity
Unit-III: Magnetic Effects of Current and MagnetismChapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism17
Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter
Unit-IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating CurrentsChapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction
Chapter–7: Alternating Current
Unit–V: Electromagnetic WavesChapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves18
Unit–VI: OpticsChapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
 Chapter–10: Wave Optics
Unit–VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and MatterChapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter12
Unit–VIII: Atoms and NucleiChapter–12: Atoms
Chapter–13: Nuclei
Unit–IX: Electronic DevicesChapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits7

Class 12 Physics Sample Paper 2023- Click to Practice

Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2023

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter–1 (Electric Charges and Fields)

Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

  1. Electric charges
  2. Conservation of charge
  3. Coulomb's law force between two-point charges
  4. Forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
  5. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
  6. Electric flux
  7. Statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 2 (Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance)

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance 

  1. Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges;
  2. Equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two-point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
  3. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.
  4. Dielectrics and electric polarization.
  5. Capacitors and capacitance.
  6. Combination of capacitors in series and in parallel.
  7. Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor (no derivation, formulae only).

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 3 (Current Electricity)

Chapter-3: Current Electricity

  1. Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor,
  2. Drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current
  3. Ohm's law
  4. V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear)
  5. Electrical energy and power
  6. Electrical resistivity and conductivity, temperature dependence of resistance.
  7. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel
  8. Kirchhoff's rules
  9. Wheatstone bridge.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 4 (Moving Charges and Magnetism)

Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

  1. Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment
  2. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
  3. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire.
  4. Straight solenoid (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.
  5. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors.
  6. Definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field.
  7. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, moving coil galvanometer its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 5 (Magnetism and Matter)

Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter

  1. Bar magnet, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment only),
  2. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis (qualitative treatment only),
  3. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field (qualitative treatment only),
  4. Magnetic field lines.
  5. Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances with examples,
  6. Magnetization of materials, effect of temperature on magnetic properties.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 6 (Electromagnetic Induction)

Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction

  1. Electromagnetic induction
  2. Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current
  3. Lenz's Law
  4. Self and mutual induction.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 7 (Alternating Current)

Chapter-7: Alternating Current

  1. Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage;
  2. Reactance and impedance
  3. LCR series circuit (phasors only), resonance, power in AC circuits, power factor, watt less current.
  4. AC generator
  5. Transformer.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 8 (Electromagnetic Waves)

 Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves

  1. Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative idea only).
  2. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter–9 (Ray Optics and Optical Instruments)

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

  1. Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.
  2. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter-10 (Wave Optics)

Chapter-10: Wave Optics

  1. Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts.
  2. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference.
  3. Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width (No derivation final expression only), coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maxima (qualitative treatment only).

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 11- (Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter)

Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

  1. Dual nature of radiation.
  2. Photoelectric effect.
  3. Hertz and Lenard's observations.
  4. Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
  5. Experimental study of photoelectric effect.
  6. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 12- (Atoms)

Chapter-12: Atoms

  1. Alpha-particle scattering experiment.
  2. Rutherford's model of atom.
  3. Bohr model of hydrogen atom.
  4. Expression for radius of nth possible orbit, velocity and energy of electron in his orbit, of hydrogen line spectra (qualitative treatment only).

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 13 ( Nuclei)

Chapter-13: Nuclei

  1. Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force Mass-energy relation, mass defect.
  2. Binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number.
  3. Nuclear fission.
  4. Nuclear fusion.

Class 12 Physics Syllabus- Chapter 14 (Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits)

Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

  1. Energy bands in conductors
  2. Semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)
  3. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n type, p-n junction
  4. Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward
  5. Reverse bias application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2023 PDF- Check Complete Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for Practical

Class 12th Physics Practical Evaluation Scheme: The evaluation scheme consists of the following sections, Two experiments one from each section, Practical record [experiments and activities], One activity from any section, Investigatory Projects and Viva on experiments and activities. Marks are allotted to each section separately. All the sections combined consist of 30 marks. Break up of marks for each section given below in table- 

Class 12th Physics Practical Evaluation Scheme
Two experiments one from each section7+7 Marks
Practical record [experiments and activities]5 Marks
One activity from any section3 Marks
Investigatory Project3 Marks
Viva on experiments and activities5 Marks
Total30 Marks

Section A 

1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
2.To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using meter bridge. 

To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a meter bridge. 


To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a meter bridge. 

4.  To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

 To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.


 To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same. 

6. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.
1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.
2.To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
3.To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.
4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.
5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.
6.To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.


1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.
2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of   deviation.
6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
7. To find the refractive index of a liquid using convex lens and plane mirror.
8. To find the refractive index of a liquid using a concave mirror and a plane mirror.
9. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias. 
1. To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.
2.Use of multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working order.
3.To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.
4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
5.To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
6.To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, or (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
7.To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
S.No.Investigatory Projects 
1.To study various factors on which the internal resistance/EMF of a cell depends. 
2.To study the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of a variation in (a) the power of the incandescent lamp, used to 'illuminate' the LDR (keeping all the lamps at a fixed distance). (b) the distance of a incandescent lamp (of fixed power) used to 'illuminate' the LDR.
3.To find the refractive indices of (a) water (b) oil (transparent) using a plane mirror, an equiconvex lens (made from a glass of known refractive index) and an adjustable object needle. 
4.To investigate the relation between the ratio of (i) output and input voltage and (ii) number of turns in the secondary coil and primary coil of a self-designed transformer. 
5.To investigate the dependence of the angle of deviation on the angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids. 
6.To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical Styrofoam (or pith) balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb's law. 
7.To study the factor on which the self-inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor/(bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency. 
8.To study the earth's magnetic field using a compass needle -bar magnet by plotting magnetic field lines and tangent galvanometer.

How to complete the CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus?

First, go through the whole syllabus of class 12th physics. Prepare a monthly plan and divide the units according to that plan. For example- you can choose a unit according to your convenience. Complete the first reading of a chapter from the chosen unit. If you find any difficulty in any topic then take help to your teacher or you can search that topic on the internet. Likewise, complete all the chapters and revise them periodically. That’s how you can retain all the units for a longer duration by multiple revisions. Repeat this process for all the units.

How to Develop Interest in Class 12 Physics?

Most of the students find physics difficult. They failed to solve numerical problems and failed to remember derivations. Here are some tips listed below follow them and make physics interesting.

  1. Start with basics, yes you have heard it right. If you want to understand what is the gravitational force, first learn what is force.
  2. Imagine and relate concepts with your daily life.
  3. Understand derivation step by step, don’t mug up.
  4. Start with easy numerical then gradually increase their level. If it is not working for you then thoroughly read the topic of that numerical and start practicing.
  5. Last but not least, physics is all about concepts don’t try to mug up them, try to understand them. Practice questions as much as you can it will boost your confidence.

How to increase sitting to complete CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus

You can increase sitting gradually, it's not a one-day process. Take baby steps i.e. the first day sit for 2 hours and don’t involve yourself in these two hours anywhere except studies. Break these 2 hours into 4 slots. Each slot consists of 30 minutes. study with full focus in these 30 minutes and complete all the chunks likewise. Then second or third day increase an hour. This process will make you consistent and studies will become a habit. That’s how you can increase these hours as per your need and increase your sitting.

Related Links
CBSE Class 12 Maths Syllabus for 2023CBSE Class 12 English Syllabus for 2023
CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus for 2023CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus for 2023
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Sample Paper 2023CBSE Class 12 Maths Sample Paper 2023
CBSE Class 12 Economics Sample Paper 2023CBSE Class 12 English Sample Paper 2023


Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2023: FAQs

There are 9 units comprising 14 chapters given in the CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus of 2023.

Yes, NCERT is designed according to the Class 12 Physics Syllabus so they are more than enough.

The CBSE Physics syllabus of academic year 2023, comprises of 100 Marks in total which is divided into two parts , that is, 70 Marks constitute for theoretical Paper and 30 Marks constitutes Practical Evaluation Scheme. The evaluation scheme consists of the following sections, Two experiments one from each section, Practical record [experiments and activities], One activity from any section, Investigatory Projects and Viva on experiments and activities.

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