Nouns generally refer to the naming words, fall under two categories, Proper noun and Common noun. A Proper Noun is a type of noun which refers to a specific person, place, things, etc, that are always capitalized in English. The name you came across in your day-to-day life like Aman, Prem, Delhi, Lion, The Sun, The Moon, Monday, Google etc. denotes a specific one. So, these names properly indicate a person name, city name, animal name, organization name, title of book, film or song name and so on. In this article, we will know more about proper nouns, their examples, their usage in sentences and some rules on it.
What is a Proper Noun?
A proper noun is defined as the name of a particular person, place, animal, organization, or thing . A proper noun has two definite characteristics: Firstly, it always denotes a name for a particular individual as defined in Oxford Learner’s Dictionary. Secondly, according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, it always starts with a Capital letter, no matter where they come in a sentence, a proper noun is always written in a capital letter.
For Example: ‘Goa’ is a proper noun that denotes the name of a city. If you use Goa anywhere in a sentence it must be written starting with a capital letter. Like- Let’s go to Goa next weekend. In the same way, I can See the Moon today. You can also use two proper nouns in a single sentence. Like- Delhi is the capital of India. In this sentence, Delhi denotes the name of the capital city and India denotes the name of the country.
Examples of Proper Noun
Let’s go through some examples of Proper Noun used in English Grammar. The below are some sentences listed out which contains one or two Proper nouns. Just keep in mind the basic definition of a proper noun and its characteristics we have discussed above.
Some more examples of a proper noun:
Name of a Brand- Nike, Google, Amazon, Zomato, etc
Title of people- Prime Minister Modi, Captain Jack, Sir Issac Newton etc
Name of Monuments- The Statue of Liberty, The India Gate
Name of School, Colleges- Harvard University, Dav Inter College
Proper Noun (व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा) Definition in Hindi
In Hindi a Proper Noun can be defined as: “एक व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा को किसी विशेष व्यक्ति, स्थान, जानवर, संगठन या वस्तु के नाम के रूप में परिभाषित किया जाता है। जो संज्ञा किसी विशेष व्यक्ति,वस्तु, स्थान आदि को सम्बोधित करता है, उसे व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा कहा जाता है | यह हमेशा एक बड़े अक्षर से शुरू होता है, चाहे वे वाक्य में कहीं भी आए हों |”
Proper Noun Rules for capitalization
As you know we have already discussed that a proper noun in a sentence is always written in a capital letter. When you are speaking, only your tone , figure of speech, the way you pronounce the words and pauses matter. But, in written communication, what matters the most is the rule of capitalization.
Not all nouns need to be capitalized. Generally, Proper nouns are always capitalized. In addition, if a proper noun consists of two or more words, the first letter in each word of the name needs to be capitalized. On the other hand, common nouns are only capitalized if they appear at the beginning of a sentence or are part of a title.
Here are some rules for capitalizing proper nouns which help in improving the readability of your writing.
1. Capitalizing the words of Days and months.
Examples: Will you be back this Sunday?
I may go on a vacation to Egypt by the end of March.
2. The names of seasons need not be capitalized. But if it is used as a part of proper name then it is to be capitalized.
Examples: Nature looks pleasant in the spring season.
‘The Autumn Leaf’ is a short collection of poems by different authors.
3. Relationships like Mom and Dad are written in Capital only if it is used as a name to specify that particular person. Not all relations like brother and sister in general usage are written in capital letters.
Example: Are you aware that Mom won the trophy?
4. The name of the subject or course can be in capital letters. But the word chemistry is not written in the capital in general usage.
Example: I would love to chose Astrophysics as my UG course
Both Chemistry and Biology are my favorite subjects.
5. Naming Professions and job titles can be capitalized. You can use capital letters to start a profession or job title only when it is used in the act of naming or addressing someone.
Example: Prime Minister Narendra Modi hoisted the flag today.
6. Directions such as east, west, north and south are to be capitalized only if it is used a part of proper noun.
Example: The Western Ghats of India attracts many tourists generally.
7. Nationalities and countries, languages are always capitalized.
Examples: My brother has gone to Sweden for an official trip
She can speak English fluently.
8. Brand names are always capitalized.
Example: We all use Dell laptops for our official purposes.
9. Eras, periods and events of historical importance are capitalized but centuries need not be capitalized.
Examples: We are now in twenty first century
The Great Indian Revolt 1857 has its significant importance in Indian history.
When mastering the capitalization of a proper noun, it's also important to understand the difference between common and proper nouns. In this article, we have discussed proper nouns, definitions, and examples. In brief, we can differentiate between a proper noun and a common noun by saying that a common noun is a general way of classifying something, and a proper noun is a specific way of classifying something.