CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23: Biology is a branch of science that deals with living organisms and their vital processes. Biology is the scientific study of life. It is a natural science with a broad scope but has several unifying themes that tie it together as a single, coherent field. The curriculum for the academic year 2022-23 provides the students with updated concepts and extended exposure to contemporary areas of the subject. The curriculum also aims at emphasizing the underlying principles common to animals, plants, and microorganisms and highlighting the relationship of Biology with other areas of knowledge.

Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23

Class 12th Biology examinations will hold a total of 100 marks together. Wherein, 70 Marks will be given on theory paper and the remaining 30 Marks will be given for Practicals. This subject plays a great role in other competitive exams such as the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test - NEET, Indian Army B.Sc Nursing Entrance Exam, Nursing entrance exam - AIIMS Nursing, Veterinary Entrance Exam - Rajasthan Pre Veterinary Test (RPVT), Veterinary Entrance Exam - UP Pre-Veterinary Entrance Test. Have a look over the syllabus below to score well as Class 12th Biology plays a key role in deciding the career of students ahead.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23 

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23 
VIIGenetics and Evolution20
VIIIBiology and Human Welfare12
IXBiotechnology and its Applications12
XEcology and Environment10

Biology Class 12 Syllabus 2022-23

The detailed and chapter-wise Biology Class 12 Syllabus is discussed below:

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 

  • Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes;
  • Pollination - types, agencies, and examples;
  • Outbreeding devices;
  • Pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization;
  • Post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed, and formation of fruit;
  • Special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony;
  • Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

  • Male and female reproductive systems;
  • Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary;
  • Gametogenesis -spermatogenesis, and oogenesis;
  • Menstrual cycle;
  • Fertilization, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation;
  • Pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health 

  • Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs);
  • Birth control - need and methods, contraception, and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP);
  • Amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness)

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

  • Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;
  • Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance;
  • Chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes;
  • Sex determination - in humans, birds, and honey bees;
  • Linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance - hemophilia, color blindness;
  • Mendelian disorders in humans - thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans;
  • Down's syndrome, Turner's, and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance 

  • Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material;
  • Structure of DNA and RNA;
  • DNA packaging;
  • DNA replication;
  • Central Dogma;
  • Transcription,
  • Genetic code,
  • Translation;
  • Gene expression and regulation - lac operon;
  • Genome, Human, and rice genome projects;
  • DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

  • Origin of life; biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology, and molecular evidence);
  • Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution;
  • Mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection;
  • Gene flow and genetic drift;
  • Hardy - Weinberg's principle;
  • Adaptive radiation;
  • Human evolution.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

  • Pathogens;
  • Parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control;
  • Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV, and AIDS;
  • Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare 

  • Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation, and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers.
  • Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes 

  • Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications 

  • Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy;
  • Genetically modified organisms - Bt crops;
  • Transgenic animals;
  • Biosafety issues, biopiracy, and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment 

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations 

  • Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate, death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Abiotic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

  • Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation 

  • Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance;
  • Loss of biodiversity;
  • Biodiversity conservation;
  • Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries, and Ramsar sites.

Practical Work

Practical Work
Evaluation SchemeMarks
One Major Experiment 55
One Minor Experiment 2 & 34
Slide Preparation 1& 45
Practical Record + Viva Voce4
Investigatory Project and its Project Record + Viva Voce5

A. List of Experiments 

  1. Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
  2. Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
  3. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  4. Prepare a temporary mount of the onion root tip to study mitosis.
  5. Isolate DNA from available plant materials such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.

B. Study and observer the following (Spotting): 

  1. Flowers are adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
  2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
  3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
  4. Meiosis in onion bud cells or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
  5. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
  6. Mendelian inheritance uses seeds of different colors/sizes of any plant.
  7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow's peak, and color blindness.
  8. Controlled pollination - emasculation, tagging, and bagging.
  9. Common disease-causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, and any fungus-causing ringworm through permanent slides, models, or virtual images or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
  10. Models specimen showing symbolic association in root modules of leguminous plants, Cuscuta on the host, lichens.
  11. Flashcards models show examples of homologous and analogous organs.

Prescribed Books

  1. Biology, Class-XII, Published by NCERT
  2. Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)
  3. Biology Supplementary Material (Revised). Available on the CBSE website.

Important Areas to Focus

As the Present Curriculum of the Syllabus gives 20 marks weightage to the Unit relating to Genetics and Evolution which covers chapters such as Principles of inheritance and variation, Molecular Basis of Inheritance, and Evolution. Under these chapters, topics such as Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal theory of inheritance, Sex determination, Mendelian disorders, DNA replication, Transcription, Translation, DNA fingerprinting, Darwin's contribution, Gene flow, and gene drift are the important areas that you should focus on. Another area to focus on is Reproduction which covers 16 Marks. This includes topics of sexual reproduction, Human reproduction, and Reproductive health which is to be given importance. Biology and human welfare which covers 12 Marks out of 70 Marks. Biotechnology covers 12 Marks and the remaining marks, that is, 10 Marks covered are related to the environment and Ecology.  

Special Advice for Students

Dear Students, As said by Manolis Votsis, “Success is always a process, never an event. A failure is always an event, never a process”. As said above, success is not a one-day event rather it's a process that is to be followed consistently on the daily basis so make your study plan on a daily basis and try to stick to your timetable so that you complete your syllabus within a defined time frame. Start practicing with your syllabus with the help of prescribed books, and sample papers. Once you are done with the syllabus, practice, then jump to start your revision again. Also for revision make plans on daily basis, weekly basis, and monthly basis. Multiple revision is the key to success. Study hard, put in all your efforts, and come out with flying colors.

Important Links
CBSE Class 12 English syllabus 2022-23CBSE Class 12 English Sample Paper 2022-23
CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2022-23CBSE Class 12 Physics Sample Paper 2022-23
CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23CBSE Class 12 Economics Sample Paper 2022-23
CBSE Class 12 Maths Syllabus 2022-23CBSE Class 12 Maths Sample Paper 2022-23
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2022-23CBSE Class 12 Chemistry  Sample Paper 2022-23
Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23-FAQs

Ans. Class 12th Biology examinations will hold a total of 100 marks together. Wherein, 70 Marks will be given on theory paper and the remaining 30 Marks will be given for Practical's. The detailed syllabus is discussed above.

Ans. Yes, NCERT is more than enough to score well in 12th biology.

Ans. Yes, CBSE class 12th biology syllabus pattern is change for the academic year 2022-23. This detailed syllabus discussed above.

Ans. No, there is grace marks in Class 12th Biology.

Ans. To write good answer you should- Structure your answer efficiently, if possible draw the diagram whether question states this or not, Do the multiple-choice questions first, Figure out the key terms in the question and Highlight the key terms in your answer.

Important Links