Indian Polity is an important subject in various academic and competitive examinations in India. It is a significant component of the general studies section in exams like the Civil Services Examination (UPSC), State Civil Services Examinations, State Public Service Commission Examinations (PSC), Staff Selection Commission (SSC) Examinations, Railway Recruitment Board (RRB) Exams, and other National level examinations. The Indian Polity subject in these examinations covers various topics related to the Indian Constitution, fundamental rights and duties, the structure and functioning of the government, federalism, centre-state relations, parliamentary procedures, elections, political parties, and more.
Indian Polity is a dynamic and ever-changing system that determines the country's government and functioning. It is an important role in protecting the rights and interests of its residents and preserving the nation's democratic fabric. It covers different aspects of the country's political structure, such as the Constitution, the three branches of government, fundamental rights, federalism, and citizens' rights and responsibilities.
Three Branches of Government are as follows-
1. Executive: The ceremonial head of state in India is the President, while the Prime Minister is the head of government. The President has executive authority, but it is exercised by the Council of Ministers, which is led by the Prime Minister.
2. Legislature: India's Parliament is the supreme legislative body, with two houses: the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
3. Judiciary: The judiciary is independent, with the Supreme Court of India serving as the highest court, as well as various High Courts and lower courts located around the country.
Indian Constitution & Its Parts
India's Constitution was adopted on January 26, 1950. It is the supreme law of the land and lays down the framework that defines the political principles, establishes the structure, powers, and functions of the government institutions, and outlines the rights and duties of citizens.
- Indian Constitution
- Schedules of Indian Constitution
- Parts of Indian Constitution
- Preamble of Indian Constitution
Fundamental Rights and Duties
The Indian Constitution guarantees certain fundamental rights to its citizens, such as the right to equality, right to freedom, right to life, right to education, etc. These rights are enforceable by the courts and form the cornerstone of Indian democracy.
Parliament of India
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body, consisting of two houses - the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
President and Vice President
The President of India is elected by an electoral college, while the Vice President is elected by members of both houses of Parliament.
The leader of the political party with the majority in the Lok Sabha becomes the Prime Minister of India.