The first person to have used the word Geography ( Greek- Geographika ) was Eratosthenes of Cyrene, the mathematician and astronomer from ancient Greece. He is also widely regarded as the Father of Geography. Geography is the branch of science that relates to the study of the Earth, its physical features, landmasses, seas, oceans, the natural phenomena occurring on Earth, and the people who inhabit this planet and their interaction with environment.
Physical Geography is a study of the planet Earth, its surface and the various patterns of its Lithosphere (the land and its features), the Hydrosphere (the water surface of Earth and its characteristics), the Biosphere (the living organisms in land and water), and the Atmosphere (the gaseous blanket that surrounds the earth). Eratosthenes was the first known geographer who did a few things:
➤ He has create a highly accurate map of the world,
➤ His map contains grid lines resembling the latitudes and longitudes we use to plot various places on earth (in modern times).
➤ He has calculated the circumference of the Earth with remarkable accuracy.
➤ The measurement of the circumference was based on few measurements. One was the depth of a well in Syene, where the sun’s rays reached the bottom only on the day of the summer solstice.
➤ He also knew the distance between Syene and Alexandria.
➤ Eratosthenes also calculated the tilt of the Earth on its own axis and also gave us the Leap Year calculation that we use today.
➤ His greatest contribution to the world of mathematics was an algorithm to identify prime numbers, popularly referred to as the Eratosthenes sieve.
Here are some of the more popular geographers who have been deemed “father” of various branches of geography (some of these are open to debate). Check the table given below for Father of various branch of Geography.
|Father of American Geography||William Morris David|
|Father of Geology||Sir Charles Lyell|
|Father of Modern Geomorphology||Grove Carl Gilbert|
|Father of Phytogeography||Alexander Von Humboldt|
|Father of Modern Cartography||Heinrich Caesar Berann|
|Father of Scientific Climatology||Reid Bryson|
|Father of Human Geography||Carl Ritter.|
Q 1. Who is known as the Father of Geography?
Ans. Eratosthenes is known as the Father of Geography.
Q 2. Who is the Father of Human Geography?
Ans. Carl Ritter is the Father of Human Geography.
Q 3. Who had calculated the radius of earth for the first time?
Ans. Eratosthenes had calculated the radius of earth for the first time.
Q 4. Who had calculated the circumference of earth for the first time?
Ans. Eratosthenes had calculated the circumference of earth for the first time.
Q 5. Who has created the accurate map of the world for the first time?
Ans. Eratosthenes had created the accurate map of the world for the first time.