Table of Contents
Flora and Fauna are two terms that are required to differentiate the living organisms (plants and animals) that are present in a particular ecosystem or geographical region. Almost 30% of the Earth is covered with forests and these forests are home to 80% of the world’s terrestrial animals. There are a total of 8.7 million species of flora and fauna in the world, and India ranks 10th in the richness of flora and fauna.
What are Flora and Fauna?
Flora is a wide variety of plants, ranging from simple single-celled organisms like algae to complex and towering trees found in the forest. Plants have a crucial role in sustaining life on our planet. By engaging in photosynthesis, they transform carbon dioxide and sunlight into oxygen and glucose, a process of immense significance for the survival of nearly all living beings.
Fauna is a wide range of animal life found on the earth. From microorganisms like bacteria to large mammals like elephants. Animals also serve a critical ecological role, as pollinators, predators, and prey within the food webs. They play a significant part in maintaining biodiversity.
Difference between Flora and Fauna
Flora comprises all the plant life while Fauna comprises animal life of various species. Flora is the main producer of the ecosystem while Fauna are the consumers. More Differences between Flora and Fauna on the basis of their study, lifestyle, mobility, habitant, functioning, and other aspects have been tabulated below.
|Difference between Flora and Fauna|
|The study of Flora is called “Botany”.||The study of Fauna is called “Zoology”.|
|Flora comprises all the plant life including trees, shrubs, grasses, and microorganisms like fungi and algae in an ecosystem.||Fauna comprises animals of various species, from insects to mammals and everything in between.|
|Flora comprises all plants including trees, shrubs, etc.||Fauna comprises all the animals from insects to mammals.|
|Flora is the main producer of the ecosystem.||Fauna or animals are the consumers.|
|They are autotrophs as they make their own food.||They are heterotrophs as they depend on plants and other animals for food|
|Flora/plants can’t move from one place to another.||Fauna/animals can move from one place to another.|
|Flora is affected by the climate of a region.||Fauna affects the climate of a region.|
|The cell wall is present in the cells of Flora.||The cell wall is absent in the cells of Fauna.|
|Chloroplast is present in Flora, which is involved in the production or storage of food.||Chloroplast is absent in Fauna. They store their energy in Mitochondria.|
|Flora provides habitat and shelter for Fauna.||Fauna is dependent on Flora for shelter.|
|Flora produces oxygen, food, medicine, wood, etc. Flora comprises roots, leaves, stems, and cellulose.||Fauna relies on the energy produced by plants and other organisms in the food web.|
|Flora is essential for converting sunlight into energy through photosynthesis, and it forms basic food chains for most ecosystems.||Fauna plays a great role in pollination and seed dispersal to support plant life.|
Advantages of Flora and Fauna
Both the Flora and Fauna of a particular ecosystem play crucial roles in the natural world and provide numerous advantages. They are the most essential components of the natural environment, and their conservation and protection are crucial for maintaining a healthy planet.
Advantages of Flora
Flora which refers to the collection of plants has numerous advantages that are essential for the proper functioning of the ecosystem.
- The flora helps in oxygen production with the help of photosynthesis, which is very important for the survival of aerobic organisms.
- It also helps in food production, as many of the plants are the direct source of food for humans and animals.
- Help in providing Habitat and shelter to the fauna. Also helps in maintenance of the biodiversity.
- Soil conservation, as the roots of the plants bind the soil reduces soil erosion.
- Climate regulation, through the process of transpiration the plants release water vapors into the atmosphere which makes the atmosphere cooler.
- The ecosystem benefits, the flora, and maintain and support various industries such as forestry, horticulture, and agriculture.
Advantages of Fauna
Fauna refers to the animals present in a particular region or habitat and has numerous advantages that contribute to the well functioning of the ecosystem.
- The fauna represents a significant part of Earth’s biodiversity.
- They help in the pollination and dispersal of seeds to support plant life.
- Fauna (such as insect-eating birds, and predatory insects)helps in the regulation of the population of pests, that can harm the crops.
- Nutrient cycling involves the decomposition of organic matter for making the soil more fertile.
- They provide a source of food for predators helping to maintain the balance in an ecosystem.
- It also plays a great role in maintaining the ecological balance as each animal species has its own function.