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Chemical Formula of Common Compounds, Table and Complete List

What is Chemical Formula?

The chemical formula of a compound is a representation of a chemical composition that provides information about the types and numbers of atoms present in the compound using elemental symbols and subscripts. It shows the types and numbers of atoms that make up the compounds. The chemical formula of a compound provides essential information about its composition and structure.

Elemental symbols are abbreviations for the chemical elements present in the compound. Subscript numbers indicate the number of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound. For example, H2O is the chemical formula for water, which indicates that it consists of two hydrogen (H) atoms and one oxygen (O) atom bonded together. The chemical formulas are essential for describing and communicating the composition of substances in chemistry. In this article, we are covering all chemical formulas used in chemistry for Class 9, 10, 11 and 12 standards along with the types types of chemical formulas.

Types of Chemical Formulas

Chemical formulas represent the composition of chemical compounds. Here we have mentioned some of the common types of chemical formulas used in chemistry to describe and represent different types of compounds and molecules.

Chemical Formula of Common Compounds, Table and Complete List_3.1

Different Types of Chemical Formulas
Types of Formula Description Examples
Empirical Formula The empirical formula is the simplest whole-number ratio of elements in a compound. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide).
Molecular Formula The molecular formula is the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule. H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide).
Structural Formula Uses lines to represent bonds and atom arrangement. H2O (Water)
Condensed Structural Formula Simplified structural formula with omitted bond lines. CH3CH2OH (Ethanol)

Empirical Formula

The empirical formula informs about the simplest whole-number or the most reduced ratio of elements in a given compound. The empirical formula doesn’t provide the exact number ratio of atoms but shows the relative proportions. For example, the empirical formula for hydrogen peroxide is H2O2.

Molecular Formula

The molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule. The molecular formula gives the exact composition of a compound. For example, the molecular formula for hydrogen peroxide is also H2O2.

Structural Formula

The structural formula uses lines to represent bonds between atoms and shows how atoms and shows how atoms are arranged in the molecule. It provides a detailed visual representation of a compound’s structure.

Condensed Structural Formula

The condensed formula is a variation of the structural formula that simplifies it further. It omits some bond lines and shows atoms grouped together. Using ethanol as an example, its condensed structural formula is CH3CH2OH.

Chemical Formula List (Table)

Here we have mentioned all the chemical compounds with their chemical formulas.

Name of the Chemical Compound Formula
Acetic acid formula CH3COOH
Aluminum hydroxide formula Al(OH)3
Acetate formula CH3COO-
Acetone formula C3H6O
Aluminium acetate formula C6H9AlO6
Aluminium bromide formula AlBr3
Aluminium carbonate formula Al2(CO3)3
Aluminium chloride formula AlCl3
Aluminium fluoride formula AlF3
Aluminum formula Al
Aluminium iodide formula AlI3
Aluminium oxide formula Al2O3
Aluminium phosphate formula AlPO4
Amino acid formula H2NCHRCOOH
Ammonia formula NH3
Ammonium dichromate formula Cr2H8N2O7
Ammonium acetate formula C2H3O2NH4
Ammonium bicarbonate formula NH4HCO3
Ammonium bromide formula NH4Br
Ammonium carbonate formula (NH4)2CO3
Ammonium chloride formula NH4Cl
Ammonium hydroxide formula NH4OH
Ammonium iodide formula NH4I
Ammonium nitrate formula NH4NO3
Aluminium sulfide formula Al2S3
Ammonium nitrite formula NH4NO2
Ammonium oxide formula (NH4)2O
Ammonium phosphate formula (NH4)3PO4
Ammonium sulfate formula (NH4)2SO4
Ammonium sulfide formula (NH4)2S
Argon gas formula Ar
Ascorbic acid formula C6H8O6
Barium acetate formula Ba(C2H3O2)2
Barium bromide formula BaBr2
Barium chloride formula BaCl2
Barium fluoride formula BaF2
Barium hydroxide formula Ba(OH)2
Barium iodide formula BaI2
Barium nitrate formula Ba(NO3)2
Barium oxide formula BaO
Barium phosphate formula Ba3O8P2
Barium sulfate formula BaSO4
Benzene formula C6H6
Benzoic acid formula C7H6O2
Bicarbonate formula CHO3
Bleach formula NaClO
Bleaching Powder Formula CaOCl2
Boric Acid formula H3BO3
Potassium Bromate formula KBrO3
Bromic acid formula HBrO3
Bromine formula Br
Butane formula C4H10
Butanoic Acid formula C4H8O2
Calcium Acetate formula CHCaO
Calcium Bromide formula CaBr2
Calcium Carbonate formula CaCO3
Calcium hydride formula CaH2
Calcium hydroxide formula Ca(OH)2
Calcium Iodide formula CaI2
Calcium Nitrate formula Ca(NO3)2
Calcium Oxide formula CaO
Carbon Monoxide formula CO
Carbon Dioxide CO2
Carbon Tetrachloride formula CCl4
Carbonic Acid formula H2CO3
Calcium phosphate formula Ca3(PO4)2
Carbonic acid formula H2CO3
Citric acid formula C6H8O7
Chlorate formula ClO3
Chlorine formula Cl
Chlorine gas formula Cl2
Chlorous acid formula HClO2
Chromate formula CrO42-
Chromic acid formula H2CrO4
Citric acid formula C6H8O7
Copper ii carbonate formula CuCO3
Copper ii nitrate formula Cu(NO3)2
Cyanide formula CN
Dichromate formula K2Cr2O7
Dihydrogen monoxide formula H2O
Dinitrogen monoxide formula N2O
Dinitrogen pentoxide formula N2O5
Dinitrogen trioxide formula N2O3
Ethanol formula C2H5OH
 Iron oxide formula Fe2O3
Ethene formula C2H4
Ethane C2H6
Ethylene glycol formula C2H6O2
Fluorine gas formula F2
Aluminum bromide formula AlBr3
Aluminum sulfide formula Al2S3
Ammonium carbonate formula (NH4)2CO3
Ammonium nitrate formula (NH4)(NO3)
Ammonium phosphate formula (NH4)3PO4
Barium chloride formula BaCl2
Barium sulfate formula BaSO4
Calcium nitrate formula Ca(NO3)2
Carbon monoxide formula CO
Carbon tetrachloride formula CCl4
Carbonic acid formula H2CO3
Hydrofluoric acid formula HF
Hydroiodic acid formula HI
Hypochlorous acid formula HClO
Lithium phosphate formula Li3PO4
Magnesium nitrate formula MgNO3
Magnesium phosphate formula Mg3(PO4)2
Nitrogen monoxide formula NO
Nitrous acid formula HNO2
Potassium carbonate formula K2CO3
Potassium iodide formula KI
Potassium nitrate formula KNO3
Potassium phosphate formula KH2PO4
Sodium carbonate formula Na2CO3
Sodium oxide formula Na2O
Fructose chemical formula (Glucose) C6H12O6
Glycerol formula C3H8O3
Helium gas formula He
Hexane formula C6H14
Hydrobromic acid formula HBr
Hydrochloric acid formula HCl
Hydrocyanic acid formula HCN
Hydrofluoric acid formula HF
Hydrogen carbonate formula CHO3
Hydrogen gas formula H2
Hydrogen peroxide formula H2O2
Hydrogen phosphate formula H3PO4
Hydrogen sulfate formula HSO4
Hydrogen Sulfide H2S
Hydroiodic acid formula HI
Hydrosulfuric acid formula H2SO4
Hydroxide ion formula OH
Hypobromous acid formula HBrO
Hypochlorite formula NaClO
Hypochlorous acid formula HClO
Hypoiodous acid formula HIO
Iodic acid formula HIO3
Iodide ion formula I
Iodine formula I2
Iron (iii) nitrate formula Fe(NO3)3
Iron (ii) oxide formula FeO
Iron (iii) carbonate formula Fe2(CO3)3
Iron (iii) hydroxide formula Fe(OH)3
Iron (iii) oxide formula Fe2O3
Iron (iii) chloride formula FeCl3
Lactic acid formula C3H6O3
Lead acetate formula Pb(C2H3O2)2
Lead (ii) acetate formula Pb(C2H3O2)2
Lead iodide formula PbI2
Lead (iv) oxide formula PbO2
Lead nitrate formula Pb(NO3)2
Lithium bromide formula LiBr
Lithium chloride formula LiCl
Lithium hydroxide formula LiOH
Lithium iodide formula LiI
Lithium oxide formula Li2O
Lithium phosphate formula Li3PO4
Magnesium acetate formula Mg(CH3COO)2
Magnesium bicarbonate formula C2H2MgO6
Magnesium carbonate formula MgCO3
Magnesium chloride formula MgCl2
Magnesium hydroxide formula Mg(OH)2
Magnesium iodide formula MgI2
Magnesium nitrate formula Mg(NO3)2
Magnesium nitride formula Mg3N2
Magnesium carbonate formula MgCO3
Magnesium bromide formula MgBr2
Magnesium oxide formula MgO
Magnesium phosphate formula Mg3(PO4)2
Magnesium sulfate formula MgSO4
Magnesium sulfide formula MgS
Methane formula CH4
Methanol formula CH3OH
Nickel acetate formula Ni(C2H3O2)2
Nickel nitrate formula Ni(NO3)2
Nitric acid formula HNO3
Nitride formula N3
Nitrite formula NO2
Nitrogen dioxide formula NO2
Nitrogen Gas N2
Nitrogen monoxide formula NO
Nitrous acid formula HNO2
Oxalate formula C2O42−
Oxalic acid formula H2C2O4
Oxygen Formula O2
Ozone formula O3
Perbromic acid formula HBrO4
Potassium Permanganate formula KMnO4
Permanganate ion formula MnO4
Phosphate formula PO43-
Sodium hydrogen phosphate formula Na2HPO4
Sodium formate formula HCOONa
Phenol formula C6H6O
Phosphoric acid formula H3PO4
Phosphorus pentachloride formula PCl5
Phosphorus trichloride formula PCl3
Potassium acetate formula CH3CO2K
Potassium bicarbonate formula KHCO3
Potassium carbonate formula K2CO3
Potassium chlorate formula KClO3
Potassium hydrogen phosphate formula K2HPO4
Potassium chloride formula KCl
Potassium chromate formula CrK2O4
Potassium cyanide formula KCN
Potassium dichromate formula K2Cr2O7
Potassium fluoride formula KF
Potassium hydroxide formula KOH
Potassium hypochlorite formula KClO
Potassium iodide formula KI
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate formula KH2PO4
Potassium nitrate formula KNO3
Potassium nitrite formula KNO2
Potassium oxide formula K2O
Potassium iodate formula KIO3
Potassium phosphate formula KH2PO4
Potassium sulfite formula K2SO3
Salicylic acid formula C7H6O3
Silicon dioxide formula SiO2
Silver acetate formula AgC2H3O2
Silver carbonate formula Ag2CO3
Silver chloride formula AgCl
Silver nitrate formula AgNO3
Silver oxide formula Ag2O
Silver phosphate formula Ag3PO4
Sodium acetate formula C2H3NaO2
Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda Formula) NaHCO3
Sodium bromide formula NaBr
Sodium thiosulfate formula Na2S2O3
Sodium carbonate formula Na2CO3
Sodium chloride formula NaCl
Sodium chromate formula Na2CrO4
Sodium citrate formula Na3C6H5O7
Sodium cyanide formula NaCN
Sodium dichromate formula Na2Cr2O7
Sodium fluoride formula NaF
Sodium hydroxide formula NaOH
Sodium hypochlorite formula NaClO
Sodium iodide formula NaI
Uric acid formula C5H4N4O3
Sodium nitrate formula NaNO3
Sodium nitride formula Na3N
Sodium nitrite formula NaNO2
Sodium oxide formula Na2O
Sodium peroxide formula Na2O2
Sodium phosphate formula Na3PO4
Sodium sulfate formula Na2SO4
Sodium sulfide formula Na2S
Sodium sulfite formula Na2SO3
Strontium chloride formula SrCl2
Strontium nitrate formula Sr(NO3)2
Sucrose formula C12H22O11
Sugar Formula C12H22O11
Sulfate ion formula SO42−
Sulfur dioxide formula SO2
Sulfur trioxide formula SO3
Sulfuric acid formula H2SO4
Sulfurous acid formula H2SO3
Tartaric acid formula C4H6O6
Toluene formula C7H8
Urea formula CH4N2O
Vinegar formula C2H4O2
Water Formula H2O
Zinc acetate formula Zn(O2CCH3)2
Zinc carbonate formula ZnCO3
Zinc chloride formula ZnCl2
Zinc hydroxide formula Zn(OH)2
Zinc iodide formula ZnI2
Zinc nitrate formula Zn(NO3)2
Zinc phosphate formula Zn3(PO4)2
Zinc sulfate formula ZnSO4
Zinc sulfide formula ZnS

Chemical Formula List

Here we have discussed a list of 108 chemical formulas for various compounds.

  1. CH3COOH – Acetic Acid
  2. HC2H3O2 – Acetate Ion
  3. NO2 – Nitrogen Dioxide
  4. SO4²- – Sulfate Ion
  5. PO4³- – Phosphate Ion
  6. O3 – Ozone
  7. H2CO3 – Carbonic Acid
  8. Na2CO3 – Sodium Carbonate
  9. MgSO4 – Magnesium Sulfate
  10. KNO3 – Potassium Nitrate
  11. Ca(OH)2 – Calcium Hydroxide
  12. FeSO4 – Iron(II) Sulfate
  13. Al2O3 – Aluminum Oxide
  14. NaHCO3 – Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)
  15. C6H5COOH – Benzoic Acid
  16. C4H10 – Butane
  17. C3H8 – Propane
  18. C2H2 – Ethyne (Acetylene)
  19. H2SiO3 – Silicic Acid
  20. H2PO4^- – Dihydrogen Phosphate Ion
  21. C2H3Cl – Vinyl Chloride
  22. C3H6O – Acetone
  23. Na2SO4 – Sodium Sulfate
  24. KMnO4 – Potassium Permanganate
  25. NaNO3 – Sodium Nitrate
  26. FeCl3 – Iron(III) Chloride
  27. NH4OH – Ammonium Hydroxide
  28. C6H4OH – Hydroquinone
  29. H2C2O4 – Oxalic Acid
  30. C6H5CH3 – Toluene
  31. C7H6O2 – Salicylic Acid
  32. C7H6O3 – Aspirin
  33. C8H10 – Xylene
  34. C6H5NH2 – Aniline
  35. C5H5N – Pyridine
  36. C6H5NO2 – Nitrobenzene
  37. H3PO4 – Phosphoric Acid
  38. Ca3(PO4)2 – Calcium Phosphate
  39. FeS – Iron(II) Sulfide
  40. NaClO – Sodium Hypochlorite
  41. CH3COCH3 – Acetophenone
  42. NaCN – Sodium Cyanide
  43. C6H5CHO – Benzaldehyde
  44. C6H5COCH3 – Acetophenone
  45. C2H4O2 – Acetic Anhydride
  46. CH3CH2COCH3 – Butanone (Methyl Ethyl Ketone)
  47. C6H5COCH2C6H5 – Acetylbenzene (Acetophenone)
  48. C6H5COOH – Benzoic Acid
  49. C6H5COC6H5 – Benzophenone
  50. C10H14N2 – Nicotine
  51. C6H5COC6H5 – Benzil
  52. C10H12O2 – Vanillin
  53. C10H14N2O – Caffeine
  54. C9H8O4 – Aspirin
  55. C12H10O4 – Terephthalic Acid
  56. C14H8O4 – Anthraquinone
  57. C12H8O4 – Resorcinol
  58. C15H10O4 – Hydroquinone
  59. C12H9N – Quinoline
  60. C10H7N – Indole
  61. C9H6N2O2 – Barbituric Acid
  62. C7H5N3O6 – TNT (Trinitrotoluene)
  63. C6H2(NO2)3CH3 – Tetryl
  64. C7H5N5 – Caffeine
  65. C6H5N3O9 – Nitroglycerin
  66. C6H12N2O4S2 – Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
  67. C6H8O6 – Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
  68. C12H17N4O4S – Coenzyme A
  69. C10H16N2O3S – Acetyl-CoA
  70. C21H28O2 – Progesterone
  71. C21H30O5 – Cortisol
  72. C21H20O6 – Estrone
  73. C22H32O2 – Testosterone
  74. C19H28O2 – Prostaglandin E2
  75. C24H30O4 – Cholesterol
  76. C5H11NO2S – Cysteine
  77. C6H13NO2 – Arginine
  78. C5H9NO4 – Glutamine
  79. C6H13NO5 – Asparagine
  80. C9H11NO3 – Tyrosine
  81. C5H9NO4 – Aspartic Acid
  82. C3H7NO2 – Serine

Importance of Chemical Formula

Chemical formulas are the cornerstone of chemistry, playing a pivotal role in understanding, communicating, and manipulating the properties and behavior of matter.

  1. Identification: Chemical formulas uniquely identify substances. They specify the types and quantities of atoms in a compound, allowing scientists to distinguish one substance from another.
  2. Communication: Formulas are a universal language in chemistry. Scientists worldwide use them to convey information about compounds, facilitating effective communication and collaboration.
  3. Stoichiometry: Formulas help determine the stoichiometry of chemical reactions, which is crucial for calculating reactant and product quantities, as well as understanding reaction mechanisms.
  4. Predicting Properties: The chemical formula provides insights into the physical and chemical properties of compounds, such as their melting points, boiling points, and reactivity.
  5. Safety: Understanding the chemical formulas of substances is vital for safety in laboratories and industries. It helps in the handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals.
  6. Education: Learning chemical formulas is a foundational aspect of chemistry education, enabling students to grasp the fundamental principles of the field.

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Chemical Formula of Common Compound: FAQ's

Q1. What is a chemical formula?

Ans. A chemical formula is a concise representation of elements and their quantities in a compound, e.g., H2O for water.

Q2. Name all the main types of chemical formulas?

Ans. There are mainly four types of chemical Formulas: Empirical formula, Molecular formula, Condensed Structural Formula, and structural formula.

Q3. What is the molecular and empirical formula of glucose?

The molecular formula of glucose is C6H12O6, and the empirical formula of glucose is CH2O.

Q4. What is the chemical formula of salt?

The chemical formula of salt is NaCl and the chemical name of salt is Sodium Chloride.

Q5. What is the chemical formula of Hydrochloric Acid?

The chemical formula of Hydrochloric Acid is HCl.

Q6. What is the chemical name of rust?

The chemical name of rust is Iron(III) Oxide (Fe2O3).

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