Verb Forms

Verb Forms: You already know that to describe the action of the subject we use verbs. As you are reading this article, you are doing an act of reading and to describe your action here the verb ‘read’ is used. In English Grammar, a verb can be modified into different forms to adjust the context of an action performed at a specific time. A verb form helps us in identifying that when the action is being performed by the subject that is either the action is performed at present or in the past or is going to be performed in the near future. In this article, we will discuss the different forms of verbs, their uses in a sentence, and their examples.

What is Verb Form?

When a verb appears in a sentence in a different or modified way to describe the specific time of the action performed by the subject, it is known as Verb Form. There are five types of verb forms in English Grammar:

  1. Root form of the verb.
  2. The third-person singular form of the verb.
  3. Present participle form of the verb.
  4. The simple past form of the verb.
  5. Past participle form of the verb.

Root Form of Verbs

The root form of a verb is the original form of the verb without having any suffix or prefix. The root form of the verb works as the base for other forms of verbs. This form of the verb is also known as the ‘V1’ form of the verb. By modifying or adding different suffixes or prefixes to the base or root verb we make other different forms of verbs. The root verb is often used to represent the simple present tense. For example: Read, Write, Walk, Play, Run, Go 

1. Third-person singular form of a verb

When we use any verb with the Third-Person singular subject i.e He/She/It/Name/One then we use the root form of the verb ending with (-s), or (-es). The addition of (-s) or (-es) to the base form of the verb changes to a third person singular form of the verb. 

For example: He writes a book, She loves video games, Rama watches the news daily, It shrinks, etc. Here, you noticed that how root verbs write, love, watch, and shrink are changed to third-person singular by just adding -s or -es at the end of the root verb.

2. Present participle form of a verb

A root verb is changed to a Present participle form of the verb by simply adding (-ing). This verb form is used in the present, past, and future progressive verb tenses. We have to keep in mind that sometimes adding (-ing) to a main or root verb requires special attention. Like when a verb ends with a vowel followed by a consonant, the last consonant of the word is doubled, and then the (-ing) is added. For Example:

Run- Running, Swim- Swimming, Cut- Cutting

 Same as in most cases, when a verb ends with an ‘e’, then that last ‘e’ is removed, and the (-ing) is added. However, there are some verbs that retain the ‘e’ in the root form when converted to the present participle form of the verb.

For Example:

Educate - Educating, Smile- Smiling, Bake- Baking. Here you can see ‘e’ is removed and then ‘-ing’ is added.

Dye - Dyeing, Free- Freeing. Here the last ‘e’ is not removed before adding ‘-ing’.

Some more examples of the Present participle form of the verb:

Belong- Belonging

Build- Building

Write- Writing 

Found- Founding

Play- Playing

3. Simple past form of a verb

The simple past form of the verb is a verb used to refer to or denote any action that took place in the past or the work that is already done. This form of the verb is also known as the ‘V2’ form of the verb. This form of verb is generally formed by adding (-ed)/(-d) at the end of the main or root verb. When a root verb ends with ‘e’ then only (-d) is used to form the simple past form of the verb, otherwise (-ed) is used. 

For Example: Play- Played, Fill- Filled, Fix- Fixed, Skip- Skipped.

There are some irregular forms of verbs that are being used in its root or base form of verbs to describe the action that took place in the past. 

For Example: Cut- Cut, Read-Read, Hurt- Hurt, Shut-Shut, Put-Put, etc.

Simple past forms of verbs can be difficult to determine for some irregular verbs that do not follow the general rule. They neither follow the rule of adding ‘ed’ or ‘d’ nor remain in their root form of verbs. Generally, these forms of verbs need to be remembered. Let's look at some examples to understand it in a much better way:

Sing- Sang, Buy - Bought, Loose - Lost, Think - Thought, Fly -Flew, Ring- Rang, Go - Went, Find - Found, etc.

4. Past participle form of a verb

The past participle form of a verb is also known as the ‘V3’ form of a verb. The past participle form of the verb may appear in the present, past, or future perfect tense.  Past Particles forms of verbs are also formed by adding ‘-ed’/ ‘-d’ just like simple past but past participles form of verbs always come with an auxiliary verb. As we discussed in the simple past about some irregular verb forms that do not follow the general rule, here in past participles there are also some irregular verbs that need to be remembered. Let’s understand with an example:

 “Mohan has taken his father to the hospital.” Here, the phrase “has taken” is in the past participle form, as opposed to the Simple past form of the verb took i.e “Mohan took his father to the hospital.” 

Verb Forms List (A to Z)

V1 

Root Verb

V2

Simple Past

V3

Past Participles

V4 

Third-person singular

V5 

Present participle form

GainGainedGainedGainsGaining
GrantGrantedGrantedGrantsGranting
CoolCooledCooledCoolsCooling
BelieveBelievedBelieveBelievesBelieving
BringBroughtBroughtBringsBringing
AdmireAdmiredAdmiredAdmiresAdmiring
FailFailedFailedFailsFailing
BreakActBrokeActedBroken ActedBreaksActsBreakingActing
AgreeAgreedAgreedAgreesAgreeing
AmazeAmazedAmazedAmazesAmazing
AmuseAmusedAmusedAmusesAmusing
AppearAppearedAppearedAppearsAppearing
ArriveArrivedArrivedArrivesArriving
AskAskedAskedAsksAsking
BehaveBehavedBehavedBehavesBehaving
BorrowBorrowedBorrowedBorrowsBorrowing
BlameBlamedBlamedBlamesBlaming
BelongBelongedBelongedBelongsBelonging
BelieveBelievedBelievedBelievesBelieving
CallCalledCalledCallsCalling
CoolCooledCooledCoolsCooling
CarryCarriedCarriedCarriesCarrying
CauseCausedCausedCausesCausing
ClearClearedClearedClearsClearing
ClimbClimbedClimbedClimbsClimbing
EnjoyEnjoyedEnjoyedEnjoysEnjoying
ExplainExplainedExplainedExplainsExplaining
HuntHuntedHuntedHuntsHunting
IgnoreIgnoredIgnoredIgnoresIgnoring
FightImproveFoughtImprovedFoughtImprovedFightsImprovesFightingImproving
ImpressImpressedImpressedImpressesImpressing
InviteInvitedInvitedInvitesInviting
JogJoggedJoggedJoggsJogging
JumpJumpedJumpedJumpsJumping
JoinJoinedJoinedJoinsJoining
KnockKnockedKnockedKnocksKnocking
LastLastedLastedLastsLasting
LabelLabelledLabelledLabelsLabelling
LearnLearnedLearnedLearnsLearning
LiveLivedLivedLivesLiving
LookLookedLookedLooksLooking
LoveLovedLovedLovesLoving
MarkMarkedMarkedMarksMarking
MatchMatchedMatchedMatchesMatching
MoveMovedMovedMovesMoving
NoticeNoticedNoticedNoticesNoticing
GrowNoteGrewNotedGrownNotedGrowsNotesGrowingNoting
EnjoyEnjoyedEnjoyedEnjoysEnjoying
ExplainExplainedExplainedExplainsExplaining
OpenOpenedOpenedOpensOpening
OrderOrderedOrderedOrdersOrdering
OfferOfferedOfferedOffersOffering
DrawProtectDrewProtectedDrawnProtectedDrawsProtectsDrawingProtecting
PushPushedPushedPushesPushing
PreferPreferredPreferredPrefersPreferring
PlanPlannedPlannedPlansplanning
PlayPlayedPlayedPlaysPlaying
ThrowProvideThrewProvidedThrewProvidedThrowsProvidesThrowingProviding
RingRepairRangRepairedRungRepairedRingsRepairsRingingRepairing
BecomeBecameBecomeBecomesBecoming
FleeFledFledFleesFleeing
ChooseRepeatChoseRepeatedChosenRepeatedChoosesRepeatsChoosingRepeating
ThinkRestThoughtRestedThoughtRestedThinksRestsThinkingResting
SitShareSatSharedSatSharedSitsSharesSittingSharing
SaveSavedSavedSavesSaving
SlowSlowedSlowedSlowsSlowing
SneezeSneezedSneezedSneezesSneezing
SolveSolvedSolvedSolvesSolving
StartStartedStartedStartsStarting
StopStoppedStoppedStopsStopping

Forms of verb that remain the same in all forms

As we know that verbs changes to describe the time of action of the subject by adding some suffix in its root verbs. But, some verbs are used in their main or base form. These verbs remain the same in the Simple Past and Past Participles form.

V1 

Root Verb

V2

Simple Past

V3

Past Participles

BetBetBet
HitHitHit
CostCostCost
PutPutPut
HurtHurtHUurt
HitHitHit
LetLetLet
PutPutPut
QuitQuitQuit
SetSetSet
ShutShutShut
RainRainRain
UpsetUpsetUpset
WedWedWed
FitFitFit
BroadcastBroadcastBroadcast
BurstBurstBurst

Irregular Form of Verbs

Regular verbs are those verbs that follow the basic rules of the addition of the suffix and prefix. They are easily recognized and used in sentences accordingly. But Irregular verbs do not follow the basic rules. Any verbs that do not add -ed or -d to their past tense form is considered an irregular verb. To use them in English Grammer, you must have to remember them.

Some Examples of Irregular Form Of Verbs

V1 

Root Verb

V2

Simple Past

V3

Past Participles

BecomeBecameBecome
BendBentBent
Run RanRun
ComeCameCome
BeatBeatBeaten
FeelFeltFelt
BiteBitBitten
BleedBledBled
Break BrokeBroken
BringBroughtBrought
FightFoughtFought
ChooseChoseChosen
DoDidDone
SitSatSat
GrowGrewGrawn
GoWentGone
RingRangRung
ThrowThrewThrown
DrawDrewDrawn
DrinkDrankDrunk
EatAteEaten
FallFell Fallen
FeedFedFed
FlyFlewFlawn
ForgiveForgaveForgiven
KnowKnewKnown
PayPaidPaid
MistakeMistookMistaken
SeeSawSeen
ShakeShookShaken
SlaySlewSlain
SmellSmeltSmelt

Some More Examples of Verb Forms Used in Sentences

  1. I am going to school.
  2. They have been drawing for hours.
  3. Mona loves pizza.
  4. I bought a new phone today.
  5. The books were stacked on the shelf.
  6. I had forgiven him for his behavior.
  7. Pawan was playing football yesterday.
  8. He has rung the bell.
  9. Why do you not come on time?
  10. Gagan had lit candles all around the room.
Parts of Speech in English Grammar 
PronounAdjective
PrepositionNoun
AdverbConjunction
Verb 
Verb Forms: FAQs

Ans: When a verb appears in a sentence in a different or modified way to describe the specific time of the action performed by the subject.

Ans: The five forms of verbs are: Root form of the verb, Third-person singular form of the verb, Present participle form of the verb, Simple past form of the verb, Past participle form of the verb.

Ans: The Root form of the verb is V1, the Simple past form of the verb is V2, and the Past participle form of the verb is known as V3.

Ans: There are some irregular forms of verbs that are being used in its root or base form of verbs to describe the action that took place in the past. For Example: Cut- Cut-Cut, Read-Read-Read, Hurt- Hurt- Hurt, Shut-Shut-Shut, Put-Put-Put, Cost-Cost-Cost, Let-Let,Let etc.

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