Present Perfect Tense: Present Perfect tense is one of the parts of the Present tense. Usually in English Grammar, the Present Perfect Tense is used to state an action that began in past and continues in the present. It is recognized by the helping verbs have and has followed by the main verb in the past participle. In English, Present Perfect Tense is considered a most complicated topic. So, to make you understand better we have discussed the Present Perfect Tense in a simplified way below.

Present Perfect Tense

According to the Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, the present perfect tense is “the form of a verb that expresses an action done which started in past and continues to the present, formed ‘have/has’ and the ‘past participle of the verb”.

In the Cambridge Dictionary, the present perfect tense is defined as “the form of the verb used for actions or events that have been completed or have happened in a period of time up to now.”

Structure of Present Perfect Tense 

The structure of the Present Perfect Tense can be fundamentally understood by analyzing its three different forms, affirmative or positive, negative, and interrogative sentence. Have a look over the structure in the following table.

                                                                                                Structure of Present Perfect Tense Formula 
Tense NameFormula & RuleExamples
Present Perfect TenseSubject + Helping Verb (have/has) + Past participle of the main verb + the rest of the sentence along with the time frameShe has lived here all her life.

Examples of Present Perfect Tense

Some examples of Present Perfect Tense are: 

  • She has lived here all her life. (वह जीवन भर यहीं रही है।)
  • They have written three letters already. (वे पहले ही तीन पत्र लिख चुके हैं।)
  • I have worked here since I graduated from school. (मैंने स्कूल से स्नातक होने के बाद से यहां काम किया है।)
  • He has finished his homework. (उसने अपना गृहकार्य पूरा कर लिया है।)
  • We have been to Canada. (हम कनाडा गए हैं)
  • She has forgotten her folder. (वह अपना फोल्डर भूल गई है।)

Structure of Sentences in Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Tense sentences can be in three forms, that is, Positive or Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative sentences. Below is the structure of all three forms and examples to make you understand better.

Affirmative/Positive Sentence Structure:

Structure of Affirmative/Positive Sentence
Subject + have/has + past participle + the rest of the sentence

Examples of Affirmative/Positive Sentence Structure:

  • He has written a letter. (उन्होंने एक पत्र लिखा है।)
  • I have drawn a picture. (मैंने एक चित्र खींचा है।)
  • They have destroyed a tower. (उन्होंने एक टावर को नष्ट कर दिया है)

Negative Sentence Structure:

Structure of Negative Sentence 
Subject + have/has + not + past participle + the rest of the sentence

Examples of Negative Sentence Structure:

  • I have not eaten an apple. (मैंने एक सेब नहीं खाया है।)
  • She has not walked a mile. (वह एक मील भी नहीं चली है।)
  • It has not rained a lot this month. (इस महीने बहुत बारिश नहीं हुई है)

Interrogative Sentence Structure:

Structure of interrogative Sentence
Have/has + subject + past participle + the rest of the sentence

Examples of Interrogative Sentences Structure:

  • Have I eaten an apple? (क्या मैंने एक सेब खाया है?)
  • Has she walked a mile? (क्या वह एक मील चली है?)
  • Has it rained a lot this month? (क्या इस महीने बहुत बारिश हुई है?)

How To Use The Present Perfect Tense?

Some of the uses of the Present Perfect Tense are:

1.To indicate completed activities in the immediate past.
2. To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite.
3.To describe past events when we think more of their effect in the present than of the action itself.
4.To denote an action beginning at some time in the past and continuing up to the present moment.

Examples of Uses of Present Perfect Tense

1. To indicate completed activities in the immediate past:

  • He has just gone out. (वह अभी बाहर गया है।)
  • It has just struck ten. ( अभी दस बज गए हैं)

2. To Express past actions whose time is not given and not definite:

  • Have you read Gulliver’s Travels? (क्या आपने गुलिवर्स ट्रेवल्स पढ़ा है?)
  • I have never known him to be angry. (मैंने उसे कभी नाराज़ होने के लिए नहीं जाना।)
  • Mr. Hari has been to Japan.( श्री हरि जापान गए हैं।)

3. To describe past events when we think more of their effect on the present than of the action itself:

  • Gopi has eaten all the biscuits.(गोपी ने सारे बिस्किट खा लिए हैं।)
  • I have cut my finger. (मैंने अपनी अंगुली काट ली है।)
  • I have finished my work. (मैंने अपना कार्य समाप्त कर लिया है।)

4. To denote an action beginning at some time in the past and continuing up to the present moment.

  • I have known him for a long time. (मैं उसे लंबे समय से जानता हूं।)
  • He has been ill since last week. (वह पिछले हफ्ते से बीमार हैं।)
  • We have lived here for ten years. (हम यहां दस साल से रह रहे हैं।)
  • We haven’t seen the Padma for several months. (हम यहां दस साल से रह रहे हैं।)

Exercise 1: 

Translate Present Perfect Tense sentences from English to Hindi-
ExerciseAnswers
We have seen that video six times.हम उस वीडियो को छह बार देख चुके हैं।
I think I have met him once before.मुझे लगता है कि मैं उससे एक बार पहले भी मिल चुका हूं।
There have been many wildfires in forests.जंगलों में कई बार जंगल में आग लग चुकी है।
Astronauts have travelled to the Moon.अंतरिक्ष यात्री चांद की यात्रा कर चुके हैं।
They have not travelled to Saturn.उन्होंने शनि की यात्रा नहीं की है।
Have you read the practical yet?क्या आपने अभी तक प्रैक्टिकल पढ़ा है?
Nobody has ever visited that lighthouse.उस प्रकाशस्तंभ पर कभी कोई नहीं गया।
Julia has made sponge cake fruits.जूलिया ने स्पंज केक फ्रूट्स बनाए हैं।
He has gone to the hilly area.वह पहाड़ी इलाके में गए हैं।
Ishika has visited the church.इशिका चर्च गई है।

Exercise 2: 

Translate Present Perfect Tense sentences from Hindi to English-
ExerciseAnswers
मैंने विभिन्न विषयों पर पत्रिकाएँ लिखी हैं।journalsI have written journal on different topics.
उन्होंने तरह-तरह की कहानियां पढ़ी हैं।He has read various kinds of stories.
वे बास्केटबॉल खेल चुके हैं।They have played basketball.
उसने एक कॉफी मग लिया है।She has taken a coffee mug.
वह पुस्तकालय गया है।He has gone to the library.
हमने इस मार्ट में खरीदारी की है।We have shopped in this mart.
हमने इस पीवीआर पर फिल्में देखी हैं।We have watched movies on this PVR.
आपने उस बाजार में खरीदारी की है।You have shopped in that market.
मैंने अलग-अलग तरह के रियलिस्टिक गाने गाए हैं, खासकर आधुनिक गाने।I have sung different kinds of realistic songs, especially modern ones.
मैंने मधुर भजन सुने हैं।।I have listened to melodious hyms.
Related Links
Tense ChartPresent Tense
Simple Present Tense
Present Perfect Tense- FAQs

Ans. According to the Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, the present perfect tense is “the form of a verb that expresses an action done which started in past and continues to the present, formed ‘have/has’ and the ‘past participle of the verb”. In the Cambridge Dictionary, the present perfect tense is defined as “the form of the verb used for actions or events that have been completed or have happened in a period of time up to now.”

Ans. Some of the examples of Present Perfect Tense are: She has lived here all her life, They have written three letters already, I have worked here since I graduated from school, He has finished his homework, We have been to Canada, She has forgotten her folder.

Ans. The rule of Present Prefect Tense is: Subject + Helping Verb (have/has) + Past participle of the main verb + the rest of the sentence along with the time frame

Ans. Some of the uses of Present Perfect Tense are: To indicate completed activities in the immediate past, To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite, To describe past events when we think more of their effect in the present than of the action itself, To denote an action beginning at some time in the past and continuing up to the present moment.

Ans. The point to be remembered is using the present perfect tense is that it has two verbs – a helping verb and a main verb. ‘Have’ and ‘has’ are the two helping verbs that are used. This is followed by the main verb which appears in its past participle form.

Important Links