What is a Sentence?
To express our thoughts, beliefs, ideas, or expressions, we need some groups of words arranged in a specific way that helps us to communicate easily. In English Grammar, A sentence is defined as a group of words containing a subject and a verb expressing the complete sense of a statement, or a question. A subject in a sentence provides information about the noun and a verb tells about the action of the noun. A sentence when written always begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop or question marks or marks of exclamations. The use of these marks at the end of a sentence depends on the type of sentence. In this article, we will learn about different types of sentences, their examples, and how they influence the use of marks at the end of the sentence.
Types of Sentence
Different types of sentences express different emotions, and thoughts in various ways. Sentences are classified on the basis of Function and structure. If we talk about the classification of sentences on the basis of function, then there are mainly 4 types of sentences that describe the intention of the sentence and these are:
- Declarative Sentence
- Interrogative Sentence
- Exclamatory Sentence
- Imperative Sentence
If we talk about the classification of sentences on the basis of structure, i.e how many clauses are used to form a sentence, then there are also 4-types of sentences, and these are:
- Simple sentence
- Compound Sentence.
- Complex sentence
- Compound-Complex sentence.
Now, we will go through each type of sentences in more detail
Types of Sentence on the basis of Function
- Declarative Sentence (Statement):
Declarative sentences are the most commonly used sentences and it is the most basic sentence among all 4-types of sentences on the basis of function. We use them to convey any message, facts, and ideas, in other words, they are used to declare something and forward the information.
In our day-to-day life, we mostly use these sentences to communicate and answer any question. To provide any information to someone, we use declarative sentences. All declarative sentences end with a period or full stop.
Here are few examples of declarative sentences:
- He enjoys reading these articles.
- I am the boss of this company.
- Cow milk is white in color.
- Adam is good at cricket.
- You are a very good boy.
So as you can see, the above sentences are used only for providing some information and facts. These all sentences are ending with full stop also.
- Interrogative Sentence (Questions):
Interrogative sentences are used to ask questions, interrogate, or to do some inquiry. It ends or is punctuated with a question mark (?).
The 3-main types of questions that are covered under an interrogative sentence are:
- WH- word question
- Choice question
- Yes/No question
Now, look at these examples of how interrogative sentences are formed
- Do you want to top over your pizza?
- Where do you live?
- What are you doing in the garden?
- Are you going for some food?
- Where do you prefer to visit, Chennai or Mumbai?
- Exclamatory Sentence (Exclamation):
Exclamatory sentences express strong emotions such as happiness, anger, grief, sadness, etc. An exclamatory sentence always ends with a sign of exclamations (!). These sentences will be helpful in expressing inner feelings and excitement. For example,
- It's a beautiful building!
- We won the match yesterday!
- She lost her brother in an accident!
- My brother scared the hell out of me!
- Wow, you have cracked the exam!
- Imperative Sentence (Commands)
Imperative sentences are used to give some command, order, or instructions, or to make any request or plea. These types of sentences generally end with a full stop. When there is any strong emotion involved while making a request or giving any command then in that case imperative sentence will end with a mark of exclamations (!)
Look and observe these examples on imperative sentences:
- Shut the door, please!
- Start opposing violence.
- Don’t go outside in the afternoon.
- Switch off the light, please!
- Submit your assignment as soon as possible.
The table below is the summary of these 4-types of sentences
|Types of Sentence on the basis of Function|
|Types of Sentence||Objective of Sentence||Punctuation Mark|
|Declarative||To make statement or to convey message||Full Stop (.)|
|Interrogative||To ask a question||Question marks (?)|
|Exclamatory||To express emotion||Exclamation mark (!)|
|Imperative||To give command, order and to request||Full stop (.)|
Types of Sentence on the basis of Structure
As we know that there are 4-types of sentences on the basis of structure, these are also known as sentence structures, and they are:
- Simple sentences
A simple sentence is the sentence having a single independent clause that contains a subject that can describe a person or thing by which an action is performed and along with the subject it also contains a predicate that is a verb or verb phrase that describes the action of the subject. A simple sentence can also contain more than one verb.
He bought a new pencil.
Aman is writing a letter.
Kamal is writing a letter and listening to music.
- Compound sentences
Compound sentences are made up of two or more independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating conjunction or sometimes by either a linking word or semicolon (;). The coordinating conjunction are but, yet, nor, or, and, for etc. Two independent clauses can also be joined by some conjunctive adverb like therefore, likewise, rather, etc. Look at few examples,
- Aman is writing a letter but forgot to post.
- He bought a new car yet he is coming to the office by bus.
- He bought a new car; he is coming to the office by bus.
- Complex sentences
Complex sentences are made up of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. In a sentence, these clauses are joined or linked with one another by subordinating conjunctions like when, after, because etc. and by relative pronouns like who, which, that, etc.
A simple comma will connect the clauses when the dependent clause appears first in the sentence. For example,
- After he bought a new car, the boy went on a long drive.
- The boy went on a long drive because he bought a new car.
- The boy who is dark and tall and wore a red t-shirt, has gone for a long drive as he bought a new car.
- Complex-Compound sentences
A Complex-compound sentence is a sentence that contains one or more dependent clauses with at least two independent clauses joined together with coordinating conjunctions with a comma immediately before the coordinating conjunction. These types of sentences are the combination of complex sentences and compound sentences.
After he bought a new car, the boy, who is dark and tall and wore a red t-shirt, went on a long drive, but forgot to carry his driving license, got caught by the police.
Examples of Types of Sentences
- Ram is studying at Career Power Institute. (Declarative)
- Sam was the topper of his school. (Declarative)
- Have you had your breakfast? (Interrogative)
- Do you know that boy? (Interrogative)
- Hurray! We won the match. (Exclamatory)
- Wow! This painting is so beautiful. (Exclamatory)
- Oh! What a lovely day it is. (Exclamatory)
- Do not make noise. (Imperative)
- Oh, do shut up! (Imperative)
- He has been sleeping since 8 PM. (Simple)
- Shyam went to school but forgot his homework at home. (Compound)
- John is a good actor; a bad singer. (Compound)
- His father punished him because he broke his phone while playing. (Complex)
- Before going on a trip, pack your bags. (Complex)
- The pizza was delivered on time, but the delivery boy left before I reached. (Complex-Compound)
- Yesterday was a sunny day, so we thought we would go swimming in the pool but entry was full in Water Park then we decided to visit the zoo. (Complex-Compound).